Bitcoin Mining

A Primer on Bitcoin Mining

How to Start Bitcoin Mining

Outside of the potential for profit by Bitcoin miners, mining plays an integral role in the Bitcoin ecosystem. It starts with transaction verification as mining serves to add new transactions to the blockchain. Miners collect pending transactions from users and package them into blocks. They then compete to solve a complex mathematical puzzle (Proof-of-Work) to validate and secure the block. Once a miner successfully solves the puzzle, the block is added to the blockchain, and the transactions become confirmed and permanent.

In addition, Bitcoin mining ensures the decentralization of Bitcoin. That is, the distributed nature of mining helps prevent any single entity from controlling the majority of the network’s computational power, reducing the risk of centralization and potential attacks on the network.

It all starts with Hash Rate

In the context of Bitcoin mining, hash rate refers to the computational power or speed at which a mining machine or a mining network operates. It measures the number of cryptographic hash calculations that a mining hardware or a mining pool can perform per second. Hash rate is usually expressed in units of hashes per second (H/s), kilohashes per second (kH/s), megahashes per second (MH/s), gigahashes per second (GH/s), terahashes per second (TH/s), or even petahashes per second (PH/s).

Hash rate is a critical factor in Bitcoin mining because miners must compete to solve complex mathematical puzzles (Proof-of-Work) in order to add blocks to the blockchain and be rewarded with bitcoins. The higher the hash rate of a miner or a mining pool, the more attempts it can make to find a valid block solution, increasing its chances of being the first to successfully mine a block.

As the Bitcoin network’s total hash rate increases, the overall computational power of the network also increases, making it more secure against potential attacks. Higher hash rates make it more difficult for any individual or group to control the majority of the network’s computing power, thus reinforcing the decentralization and security of the Bitcoin network.

As of today, July 24, 2023, the fastest Bitcoin mining rig offers a 140 TH/s hash rate. But, there are additional factors determine the overall profitability of Bitcoin mining.

Other Economic Considerations

Bitcoin miners must also consider the following before determining the overall project profitability of mining operation.

  1. Hardware Costs: Bitcoin mining requires specialized computer hardware known as Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) or Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). These mining rigs can be expensive to purchase, and miners need to factor in the initial investment and depreciation over time.
  2. Electricity Costs: Mining is a power-intensive process, and miners need a significant amount of electricity to run their hardware continuously. Electricity costs can vary greatly depending on the location of the mining operation, energy efficiency of the equipment, and prevailing electricity rates.
  3. Mining Difficulty: The Bitcoin network adjusts the mining difficulty level approximately every two weeks to ensure that blocks are mined at a consistent rate. If more miners join the network, the difficulty increases, which means miners need to exert more computational power to find blocks. Higher difficulty levels can affect mining profitability.
  4. Block Reward and Halving: Miners are rewarded with newly minted bitcoins and transaction fees for each block they successfully mine. However, the block reward undergoes a halving event approximately every four years, reducing the number of bitcoins miners receive per block. This event can have a significant impact on miners’ revenue.
  5. Transaction Fees: In addition to the block reward, miners also earn transaction fees from users who pay extra to have their transactions prioritized and included in the next block. As the block reward decreases over time, transaction fees become a more critical component of mining income.
  6. Exchange Rates: The value of Bitcoin in fiat currency can be highly volatile. Miners must consider the exchange rate when converting their mined bitcoins into a traditional currency to cover operational costs and potentially earn a profit.
  7. Market Sentiment: The sentiment and perception of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, in general, can influence mining profitability. Positive news and increased adoption can attract more investors and users, potentially driving up the value of Bitcoin and making mining more lucrative.
  8. Mining Pool Fees: Many miners join mining pools to combine their computational power and share rewards. In return, the pool charges a fee, which can impact individual miners’ overall earnings.
  9. Operating and Maintenance Costs: Besides electricity, miners have ongoing costs for maintenance, cooling, and operational expenses.

Go Swimming

A Bitcoin mining pool is a collaborative group of individual miners who combine their computational resources to increase their chances of successfully mining blocks and earning rewards. Instead of mining individually and competing against each other, miners in a pool work together as a team, pooling their hash power to collectively solve the complex mathematical puzzles required to add blocks to the blockchain.

While it is possible to be profitable mining Bitcoin without joining a mining pool, it has become increasingly challenging for individual miners to do so. In the early days of Bitcoin, when the network’s hash rate was much lower, individual miners could mine blocks using relatively standard computer hardware and have a reasonable chance of earning block rewards. However, as the Bitcoin network has grown in popularity and the hash rate has skyrocketed, the mining difficulty has increased significantly. This means that the mathematical puzzles miners need to solve to mine a block have become much harder and more resource-intensive. As a result, the chances of an individual miner successfully mining a block using standard hardware have become extremely slim.

Today, the vast majority of Bitcoin mining is done by large-scale mining operations ASIC-based miners that offer the highest hash rate and lowest energy consumption. These mining rigs are highly efficient and designed specifically for the task of mining cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. These large mining operations collectively contribute a substantial portion of the total hash rate of the Bitcoin network.

While it is technically possible for individual miners to mine Bitcoin without joining a pool, the chances of mining a block and earning a reward are so low that it may not be economically viable. The costs of electricity, maintenance, and hardware could quickly outweigh any potential rewards, making individual mining unprofitable for most people.

Mining pools, on the other hand, provide a way for individual miners to combine their hash power and increase their chances of earning consistent rewards by sharing the rewards when the pool successfully mines a block. By pooling resources, miners receive more regular payouts, which can be a more sustainable and profitable approach for small-scale miners.


Yes, today, mining Bitcoin is still profitable – based on the mining hardware hashrate of 140.00 TH/s, electricity costs, and pool / maintenance fees provided.

While, mining Bitcoin is still profitable as of right now…

Mining profitability can change very quickly.

The blockchain is constantly growing and the Bitcoin difficulty increases and decreases over time based on the total computing power currently mining blocks and generating hashes. 

That said, I recommend checking your mining profitability frequently.

Our company offers services related to Bitcoin mining operation setup. Be sure to reach out should you have any questions.

Otherwise, you can book a meeting here.

About Adam Tracy

Adam Tracy is a payments expert and entrepreneur who specializes in payment systems, blockchain technology, digital currencies, and other emerging technologies. He is the founder of Blockrunner, LLC that provides consulting services to clients in the blockchain, payments and cryptocurrency arenas.

Tracy has been involved in the payments industry as an attorney, consultant and entrepreneur since 2005, while he was become an expert in blockchain and cryptocurrency since its advent in 2013. Tracy has worked with a wide range of clients, including startups, established businesses, and investor – both in the United States and worldwide. He has advised clients on a wide range of compliance, legal and operational issues related to payment transfer systems, crypto token generation and architecture, cryptocurrency exchanges, regulatory licensing, smart contracts, and other blockchain applications.

In addition to his consulting work, Tracy has founded several companies in the payments, blockchain and cryptocurrency space, including a digital asset hedge fund, licensed electronic money institution and a blockchain-based tokenization platform. He is also a proponent of decentralized finance (DeFi) and has been involved in various DeFi projects.

Tracy is also a frequent speaker and writer on blockchain and cryptocurrency topics. He has been featured in a wide range of publications, including Forbes, Hollywood Reporters, CNBC, Reuters, CoinDesk, and

Find Adam:

Blockrunner, LLC., is a financial services match-making marketplace and consulting company. We are not a bank, FI/NBFI, Payment Service Provider, deposit taking institution, trust, or money services business of any kind. We are not regulated by any financial regulator. Banking, Payment, Processing, and Licensing services are provided by our participating members. This website is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. If you need legal advice, please consult a licensed attorney in your jurisdiction.