crypto gas fees

Gas Fees in Crypto Transfers v. Fixed Fee Fiat Transfers

Gas fees in cryptocurrency, particularly in blockchain networks like Ethereum, refer to the fees paid by users to execute transactions or smart contracts on the network. Gas fees are denominated in the native cryptocurrency of the blockchain network, such as ether (ETH) in the case of Ethereum.

Gas fees are a combination of factors which combine to make gas fees volatile. These include:

  1. Transaction Processing: Gas fees are necessary to compensate the network participants, known as miners (in proof-of-work systems) or validators (in proof-of-stake systems), who validate and process transactions on the blockchain. These participants use computational resources to validate and include transactions in the blockchain.
  2. Resource Consumption: The term “gas” refers to the computational resources required to execute operations or smart contracts on the blockchain. Each operation in a transaction or smart contract consumes a certain amount of gas, depending on its complexity and the resources it requires.
  3. Dynamic Pricing: Gas fees are not fixed and can vary depending on the level of network congestion and the complexity of the transaction. During times of high network activity, users may need to pay higher gas fees to ensure their transactions are processed promptly.
  4. Gas Limit and Gas Price: When sending a transaction on the Ethereum network, users specify both the gas limit and the gas price. The gas limit is the maximum amount of gas a user is willing to pay for a transaction, while the gas price is the amount of ether paid per unit of gas. The total transaction fee is calculated by multiplying the gas limit by the gas price.
  5. Incentive Mechanism: Gas fees serve as an incentive mechanism to prioritize transactions on the blockchain. Miners and validators prioritize transactions with higher gas fees because they generate more revenue for their efforts.
  6. Smart Contracts: Gas fees also apply to executing smart contracts on the blockchain. Since smart contracts can execute complex operations and interact with various data sources, they often require more gas compared to simple transactions.

Crypto Gas Fees v. Fixed Fiat Transfers

The reason for gas fees versus the fixed fee model found in traditional finance can be explained by five (5) factors:

A. Supply & Demand

  1. Dynamic Pricing in Cryptocurrency Networks: In cryptocurrency networks such as Ethereum, gas fees operate on a dynamic pricing model influenced by the balance between demand for block space and the available network bandwidth. When the volume of transactions exceeds the network’s capacity per block, users must offer higher gas fees to prioritize their transactions. This interplay of demand and supply results in fluctuating gas fees that adjust in response to network activity.
  2. Fiat Systems’ Fixed Fee Structure: Contrary to cryptocurrency networks, traditional banks and electronic payment systems adhere to fixed fee structures for transactions and services. These fees, predetermined by the institution, remain unchanged regardless of fluctuations in demand. Designed to cover operational costs and include a profit margin for the bank, these fees remain unaffected by the number of transactions awaiting processing.

B. Decentralization v. Centralization

  1. Decentralization: In cryptocurrency networks, transactions undergo processing and validation via a decentralized network of nodes. This decentralized process hinges on achieving consensus and entails resource consumption, resulting in variable costs (gas fees). These fees fluctuate according to computational complexity and network congestion.
  2. Centralization: Traditional banking systems operate on a centralized model, where transactions flow through controlled, proprietary networks. This centralized setup enables the establishment of standardized processing costs, which banks can distribute across transactions to provide fixed fees.

C. Degree of Difficulty

  1. Cryptocurrency Transactions: Within networks such as Ethereum, the computational demands vary depending on the action taken, whether it’s token transfers or smart contract interactions. This complexity directly impacts the gas fee, with more intricate transactions incurring higher fees due to increased computational requirements.
  2. Fiat Transactions: In contrast, traditional banking transactions, such as wire transfers or ATM withdrawals, follow standardized procedures, resulting in fixed fees. These fees remain consistent across transactions, allowing customers to anticipate costs reliably.

D. Impact of Trading Speculation

  1. Cryptocurrency: The cryptocurrency market operates within a highly speculative and volatile environment, impacting both cryptocurrency values and transaction costs. Gas fees can surge due to market fluctuations, network upgrades, or heightened activity, such as during popular ICOs or NFT drops.
  2. Fiat Systems: In contrast, the traditional banking sector experiences relatively stable fee structures, influenced by broader economic factors. Changes in fees are infrequent and are typically communicated in advance by financial institutions.

E. Scalability

  1. Blockchain Networks: Within blockchain networks, there exists a finite capacity for processing transactions per block. As network usage rises, competition for block space intensifies, consequently increasing transaction fees.
  2. Traditional Banking Systems: In contrast, banks and electronic payment networks possess the ability to adapt their infrastructure and processing capabilities to accommodate heightened demand. This adaptability enables them to sustain stable fees amidst fluctuating transaction volumes.

Dealing with High Gas Fees

Generally speaking, there are a few strategies that you can employ to lower gas fees – although many are not practical. Focus on transfers at off peak times or using alternative blockchains can work, but aren’t always commercially feasible. Another option that I have found to be more consistent is using Layer 2 protocols.

Notably, Circle offers a bona fide means of reducing gas fees provided you are willing to use USDC as a quasi-intermediary currency. This is especially relevant when comparing fiat transfer costs for cross border payments.


If you are seeking crypto-related transfer solutions offering lower transaction costs, we specialize in the design and implementation of the optimal payment architecture. Feel free to reach out with any questions!

Book a free consultation here.

About Adam Tracy

Adam Tracy is a payments expert and entrepreneur who specializes in payment systems, blockchain technology, digital currencies, and other emerging technologies. He is the founder of Blockrunner, LLC that provides consulting services to clients in the blockchain, payments and cryptocurrency arenas.

Tracy has been involved in the payments industry as an attorney, consultant and entrepreneur since 2005, while he was become an expert in blockchain and cryptocurrency since its advent in 2013. Tracy has worked with a wide range of clients, including startups, established businesses, and investor – both in the United States and worldwide. He has advised clients on a wide range of compliance, legal and operational issues related to payment transfer systems, crypto token generation and architecture, cryptocurrency exchanges, regulatory licensing, smart contracts, and other blockchain applications.

In addition to his consulting work, Tracy has founded several companies in the payments, blockchain and cryptocurrency space, including a digital asset hedge fund, licensed electronic money institution and a blockchain-based tokenization platform. He is also a proponent of decentralized finance (DeFi) and has been involved in various DeFi projects.

Tracy is also a frequent speaker and writer on blockchain and cryptocurrency topics. He has been featured in a wide range of publications, including Forbes, Hollywood Reporters, CNBC, Reuters, CoinDesk, and

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Blockrunner, LLC., is a financial services match-making marketplace and consulting company. We are not a bank, FI/NBFI, Payment Service Provider, deposit taking institution, trust, or money services business of any kind. We are not regulated by any financial regulator. Banking, Payment, Processing, and Licensing services are provided by our participating members. This website is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice. If you need legal advice, please consult a licensed attorney in your jurisdiction.